Personnel protection with the personal equipment providing physical barrier is one of the critical elements of epidemic countermeasures. The limited resource of qualified specialists: paramedics, physicians, nurses and diagnosticians makes safety of their operations an indispensable element of maintaining the continuity of the healthcare system during the epidemic. A rational selection of measures cannot compromise security and should be based on the scientific evidence. At the same time, work ergonomics and costs as well as surge wave demand and supply chain instability must be taken into account. The goal of this study is presentation of the current international guidelines (WHO, ECDC), assessment of the actual risk range for medical personnel, other crucial public services and essential business as well as the general population. We argue that adequate staff training and general public education on the ways of personal protection tailored to the risk level allow for the rational use of limited resources and flexible response to the changing situation.