The current edition of "Medical Knowledge" was written by the staff of the 2nd Department of Surgery of Vascular and Angiology CMKP. The presented articles cover a wide range of vascular diseases treated in our Clinic, and also topics of our research. The development of modern methods of endovascular surgery enables the application of minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of many vascular pathologies, both present in arteries and veins. Today, these methods make up the majority of procedures performed in the clinic. In the presented articles, we describe the results of endovascular treatment of renal artery stenosis of transplanted kidneys and stenosis of dialysis arterio-venous fistulas. Third presented article concern the treatment of popliteal artery aneurysms, a difficult and important problem in arterial surgery. In the treatment of this pathology, both endovascular techniques and classic surgical operations, often combined as hybrid procedures, are used. In the papers, we presented not only the clinical importance of individual problems, the updated recommendations, and expected results but also current doubts concerning the best treatments for vascular pathologies. In research conducted in our department, we try to solve some of these queries.